Proměny přístupů studia neandertálců – s příkladem výzkumů v Portugalsku

Petr Tůma email
   Katedra antropologie, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni; Katedra antropologie a genetiky člověka, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Univerzita Karlova v Praze

Jiří Šneberger
   Katedra antropologie, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni

Roman Hošek
   Katedra antropologie, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni

Jonathan Haws
   Department of Anthropology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA

Michael Benedetti
   Department of Geography and Geology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA

Lukáš Friedl email
   Katedra antropologie, Filozofická fakulta, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni; Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA


Neandetherthal skeletal remains are the first described and longest-studied modern human ancestors. The history of research on Neanderthals dates back to the discovery of the first specimen in the Feldhoffer cave in 1856. Initially, the debate focused on the taxonomic position of the Neanderthals and their exact anatomical relationship with modern humans. Later research concentrated on many other issues including partial aspects of life, biological and cultural adaptation to glacial conditions in Europe, issues of diet and health, or issues such as paleobiology of Neanderthals (reproductive behavior, ontogeny, mortality). Another important direction is the question of Neanderthal extinction in the period between 30 to 25 thousand years BP. This paper provides an overview of the research directions related to Neanderthals in the context of new discoveries of skeletal remains and the development of new methods of study. The authors use the specific research conducted on the Lapa do Picareiro site in Portugal as an example of a research aimed at the reconstruction of Neanderthal environment and Neanderthal behavior.

Klíčová slova

Neanderthals; paleogenetics; diet; paleopathology; paleoecology; paleobiology; adaptation; Lapa do Picareiro

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